Connector Gender : Male VS Female Connectors Difference, How To Identify And Connect ?
The plug-type connectors are typically divided into two parts as male and female , commonly referred to as the gender of the connector. The male connector is also known as the plug , and its central contact is solid . The female connector can also be called the socket , and its central contact is hollow, with holes that can accommodate male pins. When the male connector is inserted into the female connector and locked together through threading , bayonet , or similar means, it can be used to transmit both electric current or datas .
The followling picture shows the male and female part of M12 field wireable connector :
Advantages That Divide The Connector To Male And Female
There are several advantages to having connectors divided into male and female parts:
- Simplifies the assembly process and mass production of electronic products.
- Enables quick replacement of failed electronic components when connectors are used.
- Facilitates upgrades – as technology advances, connectors allow for the replacement of older components with newer and more advanced ones.
- Enhances design flexibility, enabling engineers to have greater flexibility when designing and integrating new products, as well as when composing systems with various components.
Does All Connectors Have Male And Female ?
It’s not all connectors have male and female parts , only connectors that require the two parts of the connector to be butted together to achieve current and data transmission have male and female connectors.
Following picture shows waterproof RJ45 connector male and female part :
Following is cable extension connector without male and feamle :
What Is The Contact Material Of The Male And Female Connector ?
As the male and female connector is used for current and data transmission , and aluminium and copper are the most pupular materials that used to produce male and female pins of connector , what’s advantage and disadvantage of alumium and copper :
- Aluminum has good electrical conductivity, its conductivity is about twice that of copper, but its resistivity is much higher than copper, which means that its ability to conduct electricity is much worse than copper. Additionally, aluminum’s resistivity increases with temperature, which means its ability to conduct electricity decreases with increasing temperature.
- Copper has good electrical conductivity, its conductivity is higher than aluminum, but its resistivity is lower than aluminum, which means it conducts electricity better than aluminum. Additionally, copper’s resistivity decreases with increasing temperature, meaning its ability to conduct electricity increases with increasing temperature.
So normally for high requirement connectors , will choose copper as male and female contact material , gold plating on copper can improve its electrical conductivity. Copper is a good conductive material, but in some cases, the conductivity of copper contact may be affected, such as in high temperature, high humidity, high altitude and other environments, the resistivity of copper will increase, resulting in power loss and energy waste. After the copper is gold-plated, a layer of metal film can be formed. The metal film has good electrical conductivity, which can improve the electrical conductivity of the copper contact , reduce the resistivity, and reduce power loss and energy waste.
Copper conductors are plated with gold to improve their corrosion resistance. Copper wires are prone to oxidation and corrosion in humid, acidic, alkaline and other environments, causing the surface of the copper to turn black, become brittle, and even cause the wire to break. After copper contact are gold-plated, the metal film can play a certain anti-corrosion role to protect the copper wires from corrosion and extend the service life of the wires.
As aluminium is much cheaper, for some ecomic connectors , may choose aluminum for male and female contact .
How To Connect Male And Female Connector ?
Above gif picture shows how to connect a male and female M12 A-coded connector , different connectors may have different apperance , coupling way and material , but the principle is the same , note the following precautions :
- Key postion
All connectors have key position , used to guide the male connector into the female connector smoothly , to prevent damage caused by incorrect mating . It can also be used to prevent different connectors from being mated together.
2. Coupling way
Both bayonet connectors and threaded connectors are widely used connectors in electronic products. The bayonet connector fixes male and female connectors with buckles to connect the data and power ; the threaded connector realizes the insertion and extraction of the connector by rotating the thread.
The difference between bayonet connectors and threaded connectors：
- Connectivity： Bayonet connectors have better connection performance and low contact resistance because they are directly plugged in and out; while threaded connectors require relatively poor connection performance because the threads need to be rotated to achieve connection.
- Easy to use：Bayonet connectors are relatively lightweight and very convenient to use, while threaded connectors need to be rotated to connect, which is a little more troublesome.
- Simple structure：The structure of the bayonet connector is relatively simple because it only requires one buckle to fix it, while the threaded connector requires more components such as threaded washers and locking nuts to achieve fixation.
- Reliability：The reliability of the threaded connector is relatively high because it is not easy to loosen and can remain connected under the influence of vibration and water; while the bayonet connector is easy to loosen and is not suitable for vibration and humid environments. use.
Key Parameters Of Male And Female Connectors
As we know that connectors are used to transmit current or data, and the performance and stability of male and female connector contacts are very important.
The fundamental performance characteristics of connectors can be categorized into three main classes: mechanical performance, electrical performance, and environmental performance.
In the realm of connectivity, insertion force and extraction force stand as crucial parameters. They not only impact the ease of use of the connector but also influence its electrical performance.
The primary electrical performance features of connectors encompass contact resistance, insulation resistance, and dielectric strength.
- Contact Resistance: High-quality electrical connectors should exhibit low and stable contact resistance, typically ranging from a few milliohms to several tens of milliohms.
- Insulation Resistance: This metric evaluates the insulation performance between contact elements and between contact elements and the housing, typically in the range of hundreds of megaohms to several gigaohms.
- Dielectric Strength: Also known as withstand voltage or insulation breakdown voltage, it gauges the connector’s capacity to withstand the rated test voltage between contact elements or between contact elements and the housing.
- Electromagnetic Shielding Performance: For data transmission connectors, possessing excellent shielding performance is imperative to ensure the security and stability of data transmission.
Common environmental performance factors include resistance to temperature, humidity, salt spray, vibration, and impact.
- Temperature Resistance: Some connectors can operate at temperatures as high as 200°C, with lows reaching -65°C. The varying operating temperature range determines the environments in which a connector can be effectively utilized.
- Humidity Resistance: The ingress of moisture and humidity can compromise insulation performance and corrode metallic components.
- Salt Spray Resistance: In environments with moisture and salt content, connectors may experience galvanic corrosion on their metal structural components and contact surfaces. To assess a connector’s ability to withstand this environment, salt spray tests are specified.
- Vibration and Impact Resistance: Vibration and impact resistance are critical performance characteristics for electrical connectors, especially in specialized application environments such as aviation, aerospace, rail, and road transportation.
- Sealing Performance: For waterproof connectors, a high degree of waterproofing and dust resistance is essential to protect the male and female connectors’ integrity , for examples M8 connectors should reach at least IP65 waterproof , IP67 would be much better .
Welcome to contact us if you have more questions for the male and female connectors .